Mercurial > cpdt > repo
changeset 484:5025a401ad9e
Last round of feedback from class at Penn
author | Adam Chlipala <adam@chlipala.net> |
---|---|
date | Sun, 06 Jan 2013 16:23:26 -0500 |
parents | 582cf453878e |
children | 2d66421b8aa1 |
files | src/Equality.v src/LogicProg.v src/Match.v src/MoreDep.v src/Reflection.v |
diffstat | 5 files changed, 19 insertions(+), 15 deletions(-) [+] |
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--- a/src/Equality.v Sun Jan 06 15:19:01 2013 -0500 +++ b/src/Equality.v Sun Jan 06 16:23:26 2013 -0500 @@ -729,7 +729,7 @@ Variable A : Type. Variable B : A -> Type. - (** This time, the %\%naive theorem statement type-checks. *) + (** This time, the %\%naive%{}% theorem statement type-checks. *) (* EX: Prove [fhapp] associativity using [JMeq]. *)
--- a/src/LogicProg.v Sun Jan 06 15:19:01 2013 -0500 +++ b/src/LogicProg.v Sun Jan 06 16:23:26 2013 -0500 @@ -320,7 +320,7 @@ (** The following fact is false, but that does not stop [eauto] from taking a very long time to search for proofs of it. We use the handy %\index{Vernacular commands!Time}%[Time] command to measure how long a proof step takes to run. None of the following steps make any progress. *) - Example three_minus_four_zero : exists x, 1 + x = 0. + Example zero_minus_one : exists x, 1 + x = 0. Time eauto 1. (** %\vspace{-.15in}% << @@ -488,7 +488,7 @@ Hint Resolve length_O length_S. (* end thide *) -(** Let us apply these hints to prove that a [list nat] of length 2 exists. *) +(** Let us apply these hints to prove that a [list nat] of length 2 exists. (Here we register [length_O] with [Hint Resolve] instead of [Hint Immediate] merely as a convenience to use the same command as for [length_S]; [Resolve] and [Immediate] have the same meaning for a premise-free hint.) *) Example length_is_2 : exists ls : list nat, length ls = 2. (* begin thide *) @@ -660,7 +660,7 @@ Abort. (* end thide *) -(** To help prove [eval1'], we prove an alternate version of [EvalPlus] that inserts an extra equality premise. *) +(** To help prove [eval1'], we prove an alternate version of [EvalPlus] that inserts an extra equality premise. This sort of staging is helpful to get around limitations of [eauto]'s unification: [EvalPlus] as a direct hint will only match goals whose results are already expressed as additions, rather than as constants. With the alternate version below, to prove the first two premises, [eauto] is given free reign in deciding the values of [n1] and [n2], while the third premise can then be proved by [reflexivity], no matter how each of its sides is decomposed as a tree of additions. *) (* begin thide *) Theorem EvalPlus' : forall var e1 e2 n1 n2 n, eval var e1 n1 @@ -815,7 +815,7 @@ The basic hints for [auto] and [eauto] are: %\index{Vernacular commands!Hint Immediate}%[Hint Immediate lemma], asking to try solving a goal immediately by applying a lemma and discharging any hypotheses with a single proof step each; %\index{Vernacular commands!Hint Resolve}%[Resolve lemma], which does the same but may add new premises that are themselves to be subjects of nested proof search; %\index{Vernacular commands!Hint Constructors}%[Constructors type], which acts like [Resolve] applied to every constructor of an inductive type; and %\index{Vernacular commands!Hint Unfold}%[Unfold ident], which tries unfolding [ident] when it appears at the head of a proof goal. Each of these [Hint] commands may be used with a suffix, as in [Hint Resolve lemma : my_db]. This adds the hint only to the specified database, so that it would only be used by, for instance, [auto with my_db]. An additional argument to [auto] specifies the maximum depth of proof trees to search in depth-first order, as in [auto 8] or [auto 8 with my_db]. The default depth is 5. -All of these [Hint] commands can be issued alternatively with a more primitive hint kind, [Extern]. A few more examples of [Hint Extern] should illustrate more of the possibilities. *) +All of these [Hint] commands can be expressed with a more primitive hint kind, [Extern]. A few more examples of [Hint Extern] should illustrate more of the possibilities. *) Theorem bool_neq : true <> false. (* begin thide *)
--- a/src/Match.v Sun Jan 06 15:19:01 2013 -0500 +++ b/src/Match.v Sun Jan 06 16:23:26 2013 -0500 @@ -117,7 +117,7 @@ It is also trivial to implement the introduction rules (in the sense of %\index{natural deduction}%natural deduction%~\cite{TAPLNatDed}%) for a few of the connectives. Implementing elimination rules is only a little more work, since we must give a name for a hypothesis to [destruct]. - The last rule implements modus ponens, using a tactic %\index{tactics!specialize}%[specialize] which will replace a hypothesis with a version that is specialized to a provided set of arguments (for quantified variables or local hypotheses from implications). *) + The last rule implements modus ponens, using a tactic %\index{tactics!specialize}%[specialize] which will replace a hypothesis with a version that is specialized to a provided set of arguments (for quantified variables or local hypotheses from implications). By convention, when the argument to [specialize] is an application of a hypothesis [H] to a set of arguments, the result of the specialization replaces [H]. For other terms, the outcome is the same as with [generalize]. *) Section propositional. Variables P Q R : Prop. @@ -196,7 +196,7 @@ (** We see the useful %\index{tactics!type of}%[type of] operator of Ltac. This operator could not be implemented in Gallina, but it is easy to support in Ltac. We end up with [t] bound to the type of [pf]. We check that [t] is not already present. If so, we use a [generalize]/[intro] combo to add a new hypothesis proved by [pf]. The tactic %\index{tactics!generalize}%[generalize] takes as input a term [t] (for instance, a proof of some proposition) and then changes the conclusion from [G] to [T -> G], where [T] is the type of [t] (for instance, the proposition proved by the proof [t]). - With these tactics defined, we can write a tactic [completer] for adding to the context all consequences of a set of simple first-order formulas. *) + With these tactics defined, we can write a tactic [completer] for, among other things, adding to the context all consequences of a set of simple first-order formulas. *) (* begin thide *) Ltac completer := @@ -317,7 +317,7 @@ (** The problem is that unification variables may not contain locally bound variables. In this case, [?P] would need to be bound to [x = x], which contains the local quantified variable [x]. By using a wildcard in the earlier version, we avoided this restriction. To understand why this applies to the [completer] tactics, recall that, in Coq, implication is shorthand for degenerate universal quantification where the quantified variable is not used. Nonetheless, in an Ltac pattern, Coq is happy to match a wildcard implication against a universal quantification. - The Coq 8.2 release includes a special pattern form for a unification variable with an explicit set of free variables. That unification variable is then bound to a function from the free variables to the "real" value. In Coq 8.1 and earlier, there is no such workaround. We will see an example of this fancier binding form in the next chapter. + The Coq 8.2 release includes a special pattern form for a unification variable with an explicit set of free variables. That unification variable is then bound to a function from the free variables to the "real" value. In Coq 8.1 and earlier, there is no such workaround. We will see an example of this fancier binding form in Section 15.5. No matter which Coq version you use, it is important to be aware of this restriction. As we have alluded to, the restriction is the culprit behind the surprising behavior of [completer']. We unintentionally match quantified facts with the modus ponens rule, circumventing the check that a suitably matching hypothesis is available and leading to different behavior, where wrong quantifier instantiations are chosen. Our earlier [completer] tactic uses a modus ponens rule that matches the implication conclusion with a variable, which blocks matching against non-trivial universal quantifiers. @@ -479,6 +479,8 @@ Even basic [idtac] is an embedded imperative program, so we may not automatically mix it with purely functional code. In fact, a semicolon operator alone marks a span of Ltac code as an embedded tactic script. This makes some amount of sense, since pure functional languages have no need for sequencing: since they lack side effects, there is no reason to run an expression and then just throw away its value and move on to another expression. + An alternate explanation that avoids an analogy to Haskell monads (admittedly a tricky concept in its own right) is: An Ltac tactic program returns a function that, when run later, will perform the desired proof modification. These functions are distinct from other types of data, like numbers or Gallina terms. The prior, correctly working version of [length] computed solely with Gallina terms, but the new one is implicitly returning a tactic function, as indicated by the use of [idtac] and semicolon. However, the new version's recursive call to [length] is structured to expect a Gallina term, not a tactic function, as output. As a result, we have a basic dynamic type error, perhaps obscured by the involvement of first-class tactic scripts. + The solution is like in Haskell: we must "monadify" our pure program to give it access to side effects. The trouble is that the embedded tactic language has no [return] construct. Proof scripts are about proving theorems, not calculating results. We can apply a somewhat awkward workaround that requires translating our program into%\index{continuation-passing style}% _continuation-passing style_ %\cite{continuations}%, a program structuring idea popular in functional programming. *) Reset length.
--- a/src/MoreDep.v Sun Jan 06 15:19:01 2013 -0500 +++ b/src/MoreDep.v Sun Jan 06 16:23:26 2013 -0500 @@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ We may use [in] clauses only to bind names for the arguments of an inductive type family. That is, each [in] clause must be an inductive type family name applied to a sequence of underscores and variable names of the proper length. The positions for _parameters_ to the type family must all be underscores. Parameters are those arguments declared with section variables or with entries to the left of the first colon in an inductive definition. They cannot vary depending on which constructor was used to build the discriminee, so Coq prohibits pointless matches on them. It is those arguments defined in the type to the right of the colon that we may name with [in] clauses. -Our [app] function could be typed in so-called%\index{stratified type systems}% _stratified_ type systems, which avoid true dependency. That is, we could consider the length indices to lists to live in a separate, compile-time-only universe from the lists themselves. Compile-time data may be _erased_ such that we can still execute a program. As an example where erasure would not work, consider an injection function from regular lists to length-indexed lists. Here the run-time computation actually depends on details of the compile-time argument, if we decide that the list to inject can be considered compile-time. More commonly, we think of lists as run-time data. Neither case will work with %\%naive erasure. (It is not too important to grasp the details of this run-time/compile-time distinction, since Coq's expressive power comes from avoiding such restrictions.) *) +Our [app] function could be typed in so-called%\index{stratified type systems}% _stratified_ type systems, which avoid true dependency. That is, we could consider the length indices to lists to live in a separate, compile-time-only universe from the lists themselves. Compile-time data may be _erased_ such that we can still execute a program. As an example where erasure would not work, consider an injection function from regular lists to length-indexed lists. Here the run-time computation actually depends on details of the compile-time argument, if we decide that the list to inject can be considered compile-time. More commonly, we think of lists as run-time data. Neither case will work with %\%naive%{}% erasure. (It is not too important to grasp the details of this run-time/compile-time distinction, since Coq's expressive power comes from avoiding such restrictions.) *) (* EX: Implement injection from normal lists *)
--- a/src/Reflection.v Sun Jan 06 15:19:01 2013 -0500 +++ b/src/Reflection.v Sun Jan 06 16:23:26 2013 -0500 @@ -401,7 +401,7 @@ (** The type %\index{Gallina terms!index}%[index] comes from the [Quote] library and represents a countable variable type. The rest of [formula]'s definition should be old hat by now. - The [quote] tactic will implement injection from [Prop] into [formula] for us, but it is not quite as smart as we might like. In particular, it interprets implications incorrectly, so we will need to declare a wrapper definition for implication, as we did in the last chapter. *) + The [quote] tactic will implement injection from [Prop] into [formula] for us, but it is not quite as smart as we might like. In particular, it wants to treat function types specially, so it gets confused if function types are part of the structure we want to encode syntactically. To trick [quote] into not noticing our uses of function types to express logical implication, we will need to declare a wrapper definition for implication, as we did in the last chapter. *) Definition imp (P1 P2 : Prop) := P1 -> P2. Infix "-->" := imp (no associativity, at level 95). @@ -478,7 +478,9 @@ Local Open Scope partial_scope. - (** Now we can write a function [forward] which implements deconstruction of hypotheses. It has a dependent type, in the style of Chapter 6, guaranteeing correctness. The arguments to [forward] are a goal formula [f], a set [known] of atomic formulas that we may assume are true, a hypothesis formula [hyp], and a success continuation [cont] that we call when we have extended [known] to hold new truths implied by [hyp]. *) + (** Now we can write a function [forward] that implements deconstruction of hypotheses, expanding a compound formula into a set of sets of atomic formulas covering all possible cases introduced with use of [Or]. To handle consideration of multiple cases, the function takes in a continuation argument, which will be called once for each case. + + The [forward] function has a dependent type, in the style of Chapter 6, guaranteeing correctness. The arguments to [forward] are a goal formula [f], a set [known] of atomic formulas that we may assume are true, a hypothesis formula [hyp], and a success continuation [cont] that we call when we have extended [known] to hold new truths implied by [hyp]. *) Definition forward : forall (f : formula) (known : set index) (hyp : formula) (cont : forall known', [allTrue known' -> formulaDenote atomics f]), @@ -789,7 +791,7 @@ | Abs _ e1 => fun x => termDenote (e1 x) end. -(** Here is a %\%naive first attempt at a reification tactic. *) +(** Here is a %\%naive%{}% first attempt at a reification tactic. *) Ltac refl' e := match e with @@ -805,9 +807,9 @@ | _ => constr:(Const e) end. -(** Recall that a regular Ltac pattern variable [?X] only matches terms that _do not mention new variables introduced within the pattern_. In our %\%naive implementation, the case for matching function abstractions matches the function body in a way that prevents it from mentioning the function argument! Our code above plays fast and loose with the function body in a way that leads to independent problems, but we could change the code so that it indeed handles function abstractions that ignore their arguments. +(** Recall that a regular Ltac pattern variable [?X] only matches terms that _do not mention new variables introduced within the pattern_. In our %\%naive%{}% implementation, the case for matching function abstractions matches the function body in a way that prevents it from mentioning the function argument! Our code above plays fast and loose with the function body in a way that leads to independent problems, but we could change the code so that it indeed handles function abstractions that ignore their arguments. - To handle functions in general, we will use the pattern variable form [@?X], which allows [X] to mention newly introduced variables that are declared explicitly. For instance: *) + To handle functions in general, we will use the pattern variable form [@?X], which allows [X] to mention newly introduced variables that are declared explicitly. A use of [@?X] must be followed by a list of the local variables that may be mentioned. The variable [X] then comes to stand for a Gallina function over the values of those variables. For instance: *) Reset refl'. Ltac refl' e := @@ -868,4 +870,4 @@ Abort. -(** Our encoding here uses Coq functions to represent binding within the terms we reify, which makes it difficult to implement certain functions over reified terms. An alternative would be to represent variables with numbers. This can be done by writing a slightly smarter reification function that identifies variable references by detecting when term arguments are just compositions of [fst] and [snd]; from the order of the compositions we may read off the variable number. We leave the details as an exercise for the reader. *) +(** Our encoding here uses Coq functions to represent binding within the terms we reify, which makes it difficult to implement certain functions over reified terms. An alternative would be to represent variables with numbers. This can be done by writing a slightly smarter reification function that identifies variable references by detecting when term arguments are just compositions of [fst] and [snd]; from the order of the compositions we may read off the variable number. We leave the details as an exercise (though not a trivial one!) for the reader. *)