Mercurial > cpdt > repo
changeset 294:1b6c81e51799
Fixes added while proofreading JFR camera-ready
author | Adam Chlipala <adam@chlipala.net> |
---|---|
date | Thu, 09 Dec 2010 13:44:57 -0500 |
parents | e2dbc0f1c1e8 |
children | 6833a1b778c0 |
files | src/DataStruct.v src/Equality.v src/MoreDep.v src/StackMachine.v src/Subset.v |
diffstat | 5 files changed, 8 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-) [+] |
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--- a/src/DataStruct.v Wed Nov 10 16:34:46 2010 -0500 +++ b/src/DataStruct.v Thu Dec 09 13:44:57 2010 -0500 @@ -792,8 +792,7 @@ induction n; crush; match goal with | [ IHn : forall tests bodies, _, tests : _ -> _, bodies : _ -> _ |- _ ] => - generalize (IHn (fun idx => tests (Some idx)) (fun idx => bodies (Some idx))); - clear IHn; intro IHn + specialize (IHn (fun idx => tests (Some idx)) (fun idx => bodies (Some idx))) end; repeat (match goal with | [ |- context[match ?E with @@ -844,7 +843,7 @@ Inductive types are often the most pleasant to work with, after someone has spent the time implementing some basic library functions for them, using fancy [match] annotations. Many aspects of Coq's logic and tactic support are specialized to deal with inductive types, and you may miss out if you use alternate encodings. - Recursive types usually involve much less initial effort, but they can be less convenient to use with proof automation. For instance, the [simpl] tactic (which is among the ingredients in [crush]) will sometimes be overzealous in simplifying uses of functions over recursive types. Consider a call [get l f], where variable [l] has type [filist A (S n)]. The type of [l] would be simplified to an explicit pair type. In a proof involving many recursive types, this kind of unhelpful %``%#"#simplification#"#%''% can lead to rapid bloat in the sizes of subgoals. + Recursive types usually involve much less initial effort, but they can be less convenient to use with proof automation. For instance, the [simpl] tactic (which is among the ingredients in [crush]) will sometimes be overzealous in simplifying uses of functions over recursive types. Consider a call [get l f], where variable [l] has type [filist A (S n)]. The type of [l] would be simplified to an explicit pair type. In a proof involving many recursive types, this kind of unhelpful %``%#"#simplification#"#%''% can lead to rapid bloat in the sizes of subgoals. Even worse, it can prevent syntactic pattern-matching, like in cases where [filist] is expected but a pair type is found in the %``%#"#simplified#"#%''% version. Another disadvantage of recursive types is that they only apply to type families whose indices determine their %``%#"#skeletons.#"#%''% This is not true for all data structures; a good counterexample comes from the richly-typed programming language syntax types we have used several times so far. The fact that a piece of syntax has type [Nat] tells us nothing about the tree structure of that syntax.
--- a/src/Equality.v Wed Nov 10 16:34:46 2010 -0500 +++ b/src/Equality.v Thu Dec 09 13:44:57 2010 -0500 @@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ (** %\chapter{Reasoning About Equality Proofs}% *) -(** In traditional mathematics, the concept of equality is usually taken as a given. On the other hand, in type theory, equality is a very contentious subject. There are at least three different notions of equality that are important, and researchers are actively investigating new definitions of what it means for two terms to be equal. Even once we fix a notion of equality, there are inevitably tricky issues that arise in proving properties of programs that manipulate equality proofs explicitly. In this chapter, we will focus on design patterns for circumventing these tricky issues, and we will introduce the different notions of equality as they are germane. *) +(** In traditional mathematics, the concept of equality is usually taken as a given. On the other hand, in type theory, equality is a very contentious subject. There are at least three different notions of equality that are important, and researchers are actively investigating new definitions of what it means for two terms to be equal. Even once we fix a notion of equality, there are inevitably tricky issues that arise in proving properties of programs that manipulate equality proofs explicitly. In this chapter, I will focus on design patterns for circumventing these tricky issues, and I will introduce the different notions of equality as they are germane. *) (** * The Definitional Equality *) @@ -95,7 +95,7 @@ (** The standard [eq] relation is critically dependent on the definitional equality. [eq] is often called a %\textit{%#<i>#propositional equality#</i>#%}%, because it reifies definitional equality as a proposition that may or may not hold. Standard axiomatizations of an equality predicate in first-order logic define equality in terms of properties it has, like reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity. In contrast, for [eq] in Coq, those properties are implicit in the properties of the definitional equality, which are built into CIC's metatheory and the implementation of Gallina. We could add new rules to the definitional equality, and [eq] would keep its definition and methods of use. - This all may make it sound like the choice of [eq]'s definition is unimportant. To the contrary, in this chapter, we will see examples where alternate definitions may simplify proofs. Before that point, we will introduce effective proof methods for goals that use proofs of the standard propositional equality %``%#"#as data.#"#%''% *) + This all may make it sound like the choice of [eq]'s definition is unimportant. To the contrary, in this chapter, we will see examples where alternate definitions may simplify proofs. Before that point, I will introduce proof methods for goals that use proofs of the standard propositional equality %``%#"#as data.#"#%''% *) (** * Heterogeneous Lists Revisited *) @@ -482,7 +482,7 @@ ]] - We have made an important bit of progress, as now only a single call to [fhapp] appears in the conclusion. Trying case analysis on our proofs still will not work, but there is a move we can make to enable it. Not only does just one call to [fhapp] matter to us now, but it also %\textit{%#<i>#does not matter what the result of the call is#</i>#%}%. In other words, the subgoal should remain true if we replace this [fhapp] call with a fresh variable. The [generalize] tactic helps us do exactly that. *) + We have made an important bit of progress, as now only a single call to [fhapp] appears in the conclusion, repeated twice. Trying case analysis on our proofs still will not work, but there is a move we can make to enable it. Not only does just one call to [fhapp] matter to us now, but it also %\textit{%#<i>#does not matter what the result of the call is#</i>#%}%. In other words, the subgoal should remain true if we replace this [fhapp] call with a fresh variable. The [generalize] tactic helps us do exactly that. *) generalize (fhapp (fhapp b hls2) hls3). (** [[
--- a/src/MoreDep.v Wed Nov 10 16:34:46 2010 -0500 +++ b/src/MoreDep.v Thu Dec 09 13:44:57 2010 -0500 @@ -665,7 +665,7 @@ (** The balance correctness theorems are simple first-order logic equivalences, where we use the function [projT2] to project the payload of a [sigT] value. *) - Lemma present_balance1 : forall n (a : rtree n) (y : nat) c2 (b : rbtree c2 n) , + Lemma present_balance1 : forall n (a : rtree n) (y : nat) c2 (b : rbtree c2 n), present z (projT2 (balance1 a y b)) <-> rpresent z a \/ z = y \/ present z b. destruct a; present_balance.
--- a/src/StackMachine.v Wed Nov 10 16:34:46 2010 -0500 +++ b/src/StackMachine.v Thu Dec 09 13:44:57 2010 -0500 @@ -103,7 +103,7 @@ Languages like Haskell and ML have a convenient %\textit{%#<i>#principal typing#</i>#%}% property, which gives us strong guarantees about how effective type inference will be. Unfortunately, Coq's type system is so expressive that any kind of %``%#"#complete#"#%''% type inference is impossible, and the task even seems to be hard heuristically in practice. Nonetheless, Coq includes some very helpful heuristics, many of them copying the workings of Haskell and ML type-checkers for programs that fall in simple fragments of Coq's language. -This is as good a time as any to mention the preponderance of different languages associated with Coq. The theoretical foundation of Coq is a formal system called the %\textit{%#<i>#Calculus of Inductive Constructions (CIC)#</i>#%}%, which is an extension of the older %\textit{%#<i>#Calculus of Constructions (CoC)#</i>#%}%. CIC is quite a spartan foundation, which is helpful for proving metatheory but not so helpful for real development. Still, it is nice to know that it has been proved that CIC enjoys properties like %\textit{%#<i>#strong normalization#</i>#%}%, meaning that every program (and, more importantly, every proof term) terminates; and %\textit{%#<i>#relative consistency#</i>#%}% with systems like versions of Zermelo Fraenkel set theory, which roughly means that you can believe that Coq proofs mean that the corresponding propositions are %``%#"#really true,#"#%''% if you believe in set theory. +This is as good a time as any to mention the preponderance of different languages associated with Coq. The theoretical foundation of Coq is a formal system called the %\textit{%#<i>#Calculus of Inductive Constructions (CIC)#</i>#%}%, which is an extension of the older %\textit{%#<i>#Calculus of Constructions (CoC)#</i>#%}%. CIC is quite a spartan foundation, which is helpful for proving metatheory but not so helpful for real development. Still, it is nice to know that it has been proved that CIC enjoys properties like %\textit{%#<i>#strong normalization#</i>#%}%, meaning that every program (and, more importantly, every proof term) terminates; and %\textit{%#<i>#relative consistency#</i>#%}% with systems like versions of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory, which roughly means that you can believe that Coq proofs mean that the corresponding propositions are %``%#"#really true,#"#%''% if you believe in set theory. Coq is actually based on an extension of CIC called %\textit{%#<i>#Gallina#</i>#%}%. The text after the [:=] and before the period in the last code example is a term of Gallina. Gallina adds many useful features that are not compiled internally to more primitive CIC features. The important metatheorems about CIC have not been extended to the full breadth of these features, but most Coq users do not seem to lose much sleep over this omission.
--- a/src/Subset.v Wed Nov 10 16:34:46 2010 -0500 +++ b/src/Subset.v Thu Dec 09 13:44:57 2010 -0500 @@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ ]] - One aspect in particular of the definition of [pred_strong1] may be surprising. We took advantage of [Definition]'s syntactic sugar for defining function arguments in the case of [n], but we bound the proofs later with explicit [fun] expressions. Let us see what happens if we write this function in the way that at first seems most natural. +One aspect in particular of the definition of [pred_strong1] may be surprising. We took advantage of [Definition]'s syntactic sugar for defining function arguments in the case of [n], but we bound the proofs later with explicit [fun] expressions. Let us see what happens if we write this function in the way that at first seems most natural. [[ Definition pred_strong1' (n : nat) (pf : n > 0) : nat :=